Evidence-based Dentistry in Indonesian Dental Schools: A National Survey

D.R. Firman
Context / probleemstelling of aanleiding

Probleemstelling (inclusief theoretische onderbouwing en onderzoeksvraag/vragen):

Evidence Based Dentistry (EBD) is defined as the combination of a dentist’s clinical expertise, patients’ preferences or values, and the best available evidence to provide an improved standard of care. Dental schools have an important role in promoting the utilization of research in dentistry through EBD teaching. However, EBD practices in lower-middle income countries (LMIC) are very limited (Minja and Lwoga, 2021). In addition, growing the EBD teaching requires strong administrative support by school leaders (Hinton 2015). To get a better insight in the current situation regarding teaching EBD in Indonesia, we conducted a study with the following two research questions: 1) what are the dean’s perceptions about the importance and need for teaching EBD in their school, and 2) what is the actual level of implementation of EBD teaching in the Indonesian dental curriculum.


In September 2022, we conducted a survey study among all 32 dental schools in Indonesia. Two online questionnaires written in the Indonesian language were used. The first questionnaire was developed to capture the perceived value and importance of EBD skills and EBD teaching by the deans. The second questionnaire was developed to collect more information about the actual implementation of EBD teaching. Both surveys consisted of multiple choice and open-ended questions. The first survey was launched during an in-person national deans’ meeting of Indonesian dental schools at Surabaya, Indonesia. The second survey was send out as a follow up after the results form survey 1 were received.

Resultaten (en conclusie):

We received 31 responses (96.9% response rate) on the first questionnaire and 29 responses on the second questionnaire (90.6%). All deans perceived EBD skills to be acquired and practiced by the students as well as incorporating EBD skills in the curriculum as very important/essential. Only 5 respondents (16.1%) considered that their schools already met their expectations with the teaching and its assessment, while the others perceived that improvement is necessary. The majority of the respondents highly valued collaboration with other schools on developing training for teachers and on improving EBD teaching in their curriculum (71%).

In the second survey, 17 schools reported having EBD teaching both as independent dedicated courses and incorporated in courses. Nine other schools were either for those two categories, while the remaining three schools did not reported into neither of the categories. The majority of the schools uses a blended approach while only one school conducts the course fully online. Lecture-based teaching was mentioned as the most used strategy for teaching EBD, followed by several small-group-size teaching strategies. The coverage teaching of the five EBD steps (ask, acquire, appraise, apply and evaluate) shows a rather wide range, which are 34.5% to 96.6% in the preclinic and from 10.3% to 62.1% in the clinic programs. Among all participating institutions, only 8 out of 29 dental schools have formally trained teachers in EBD.

Discussie (beschouwing resultaten en conclusie in het kader van de theorie):

In this study, we found very high consensus among the deans regarding the importance of teaching EBD. They also highly valued for a collaborative faculty development programs. Strong administrative support from the leader can be considered a crucial starting point. More in-depth analysis is needed to adapt previous interventions for LMIC settings to improve the EBD teaching skills as a faculty development program in Indonesia.


Hinton, R.J., McCann, A.L., Schneiderman, E.D., Dechow, P.C., 2015. The Winds of Change Revisited: Progress Towards Building a Culture of Evidence-Based Dentistry. J Dent-Educ 79, 499–509. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.0022-0337.2015.79.5.tb05909.x

Minja, I.K., Lwoga, E.T., 2021. Evidence Based Dentistry among Dentists in Low and Middle Income Countries: A Systematic-Review. East-Afr-Health-Res-J5, 129–136. https://doi.org/10.24248/eahrj.v5i2.662

Beschrijving van de interventie/innovatie:
Ervaringen/analyse van de implementatie:
Lessons learned (implicaties voor de praktijk):

Overig, namelijk: Overig, namelijk: Overig, namelijk: Evidence-based dentistry Lower-middle income country National survey

Wijze van presentatie:

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